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PYB102: Laboratory Report Please submit a 1500 word laboratory report describing the Iconic Memory experiment conducted during Lab Class in Week 3. This report is worth 35% of your mark for the unit. The report must be written in strict accordance with APA style. Starting References: Starting references: (attached in PDF format) Coltheart, M. (1980). Iconic memory and visual persistence. Perception and Psychophysics, 27(1), 183-228. Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74(11), 1-29. Each report should be given a descriptive title; – Identify the focus of the study – Identify IV and DV – Brief but descriptive- 10-­â€20 words – Placed on first page in normal font Data: You should present and describe all and only the following data in suitable APA style in your Results Section. Please note that the data is NOT presented in APA style here. Descriptive Statistics Condition n Mean (% correct) SD t-tests Whole Report 411 37.81 10.94 Comparison t df p Partial Position Report 411 46.18 20.37 Whole report vs partial position -9.424 410 0.001 Partial Category Report 411 30.66 15.07 Partial position vs partial category 15.648 410 0.001 Submission Details: 1. The set length for this essay is 1500 words (+/-­â€ 10%) and over length penalties will be applied as per the Unit Outline. The Abstract and References do not count towards the word limit. 2. Please include a coversheet in APA format. 3. The assignment should be typed (double-­â€spaced) on A4 (or similar) sized paper. 4. You should always keep a copy of any work you submit. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to replicate the partial report superiority effect and to demonstrate that the contents of the icon are not initially “recognised“. Hypotheses The hypotheses are based upon the empirical evidence that you review in your introduction (NOT guess work, or based on your results) » First, that participants will recall a greater proportion of characters in the partial position report condition than in the whole report condition. » Second, that participants will recall a greater proportion of characters in the partial position report condition than in the partial category report condition. Design Outline of the experimental design » What was the experimental design (independent groups? Repeated measures?)  REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN » Counterbalancing was used as a control measure » What was the Independent Variable? » IV: Report style (three levels)  whole report  partial position report  partial category report » What was the Dependent Variable? » DV: Percentage of stimuli identified in correct position Procedure ● Five trials in each of the three conditions ● 2 row by 4 column matrix of characters presented in white on a blue background for 150ms; ● Probes; » Sound occurs immediately after matrix disappears » Partial position report condition; High Pitched = top row  Low Pitched = bottom row » Partial category report condition;  High Pitched = letters Low Pitched = digits Answer written on a piece of paper first and then entered into computer for scoring 5 seconds later. Introduction • You should be using previous research to build an argument for the predictions you are making (your hypotheses) – This means that you should make frequent reference to the literature in your introduction. • Your introduction should build logically towards your hypotheses, which appear at the end of the introduction. • An hypothesis is a simple, direct statement of a predicted relationship between your – independent variable/s & – dependent variable/s – based on theory from your research area Introduction • What is the general topic? Why is it of interest? • What theoretical explanations have been proposed to explain the phenomena? • How have earlier researchers investigated the topic, and what did they find? – Briefly describe some details from previous research • How does this previous research relate to the current study? What are we going to do in this study, and why? – Replication – Small variation on previous work – adds information about reproducibility and generality of results • What specific research question or hypothesis willbe investigated? Checklist: Method • The Method section explains how you went about testing the hypothesis. • The following subsections (level 2 headings) are usually required. Each is given a bolded heading on the left hand side of the page. Method Participants In which we describe our participants… Design In which we describe our design… Apparatus and Procedure A combined apparatus and procedure section is fine… Method: Participants • You must adequately describe the sample of participants which was tested in the experiment. The following rules generally apply. – Always specify the total number of participants tested. – Always specify the population from which the participants were selected, and how they were selected from that population. – Do not dwell on irrelevant subject characteristics. – Describe any pre-test or selection procedures – Do not present information that is a guess • (e.g. “…all participants had normal vision”, “…half of the participant group was male” – did we assess these things???)  Participants The participants were 20 undergraduates chosen at random from a first year psychology class at QUT. No selection criteria were applied for participation in the experiment. Method: Design • The design subsection tells the reader the way the experiment was structured. • Identify the IV and DV and how they were operationalised (measured) • Specify the control measures used Reminder: Design Details • What was our… – IV: Report Type (Three Levels): • Whole Report • Partial Category • Partial Position – Design: Repeated measures • Counterbalancing – DV: The proportion of correctly identified stimuli Method: Apparatus and/or Stimuli • Describes the equipment used to conduct the experiment including the stimuli used • The major pieces of apparatus are those used to present the stimuli to the subjects and to record their responses. • You should provide a thorough description of these apparatus including the functional relationship between the various devices used. – It is not adequate to simply provide a list of device names. Method: Procedure • This section details the key steps which were followed during the running of the experiment. • Provide the detail needed to replicate your experiment. – Tell the reader how many trials were conducted – Tell the reader what happened during each trial. • What was presented to participants? • What did participants do? • Describe the sequence of events… what happened first? Last? – Describe the relevant details of the experimental setting – Assess whether a given detail is relevant to the outcome of the experiment. – Avoid dwelling on irrelevant details, or spending too long describing routine aspects of the experiment. • You may write a combined Apparatus & Procedure section Design Write in YOUR OWN words (The independent variable was the report style. The three levels of this variable were; whole report, partial position report, partial category report. The IV was varied within subjects, with counterbalancing control. The dependent variable was the percentage of correct responses in each condition.) Method: Apparatus and/or Stimuli Apparatus Write in YOUR OWN words (The stimuli consisted of a row by 4 column matrix of characters (letters and numbers) presented in white on blue background presented on a 17 inch computer monitor. A tone was sounded which participants responded to (either high pitched or low pitched). Answers were written on blank table (2 rows by 4 columns)) Apparatus and Procedure Write in YOUR OWN words (On each trial the participants viewed a matrix of characters on a 17-inch computer monitor. Their task was to report as many of the correct characters via entering the letters or numbers onto a blank 2 row by 4 column table on a computer program. Participants completed 5 trials for whole-report condition, 5 trials for the partial position report, and 5 trials for the partial category report. The order that conditions appeared was counterbalanced.) Results • The purpose of the Results section is to present the data which you gathered during the experiment in a form which allows the hypothesis to be assessed. • The Results section is given a centred heading and there is no page break between the Method and Results sections Results These four elements are essential (but don’t have their own headings, just use these to guide writing): 1. Define the nature of the data gathered including any manipulations of the raw data. 2. Present the data in a convenient form (Figure) 3. Describe what the data shows by reference to appropriate descriptive statistics (e.g. means and standard deviations), use words like higher, lower, faster, slower. 4. Present statistical analyses undertaken to confirm these descriptive observations (eg. t-tests, correlations). Results from the experiment • Total sample size (N) was 411. • Information about the three reporting conditions (Means and Standard Deviations): Whole Report: M = 37.81 ,SD = 10.94 Partial Position Report: M = 46.18,SD = 20.37 Partial Category Report: M = 30.66,SD =15.07 Does it look like these results might be in line with our predictions? Results from the experiment • Dependent group t-tests were performed to compare the reporting conditions (these correspond with the hypotheses presented): Whole Report vs Partial Position Report: t(410) = -9.42, p < .001 Partial Position Report vs Partial Category Report: t(410) = 15.65, p < .001 These help us to determine whether there are significant differences between the groups. Do the results support our hypotheses? APA formatting for results • Format means and standard deviations as (M = X, SD = X). Please use two decimal places. • Format p values as p < .001 (no leading zero) • Format t-tests as t(df) = X, p < .001 Figures and Tables • Sit in the results section. • Provide a convenient way to present and summarise the data. • Don’t present the same material in both a figure and a table. – Consecutively number all tables and give each a descriptive title placed immediately above the table – Consecutively number all figures and give each a descriptive title placed immediately below the figure. – Refer to all tables and figures in the body of your text – Position the figure or table as close as possible in the text to the place where it is discussed. • For this report you should report your results in afigure/graph ONLY – you do not need to have a table. !!!! Graph and SEM calculations are provided in Exel file attached.!!!! Error Bars Let’s calculate standard error together… Standard error = standard deviation of a condition divided by the square root of the number of subjects in the condition. Total sample size (N) was 411. Whole Report: M = 37.81 , SD = 10.94, SEM= ?? Partial Position Report: M = 46.18, SD = 20.37, SEM= ?? Partial Category Report: M = 30.66, SD =15.07, SEM= ?? Discussion • This section explains what the data says about the hypotheses, and hence about the theory • Before drawing firm conclusions consider any alternate explanations of your results. – It is critical that any alternate explanation which you propose be both logical and consistent with the data. • Draw a conclusion regarding the most viable explanation Discussion • Begin with a clear statement summarising the status of the hypotheses in light of the obtained data. – Do results support the hypotheses? • Relate your findings back to previous research and theory. Do they support previous studies? • Discuss any limitations of the experiment – Why are they important? How might they have affected the results?  IMPORTANT! • Any suggestions for subsequent research to extend and/ or clarify existing research or theory? Checklist: Abstract • Write it last, even though it’s the first part of the report. • A brief summary of the report (120-­â€150 words) • The abstract should tell the reader: – What was predicted – How this was tested – What results were obtained

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