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Please answer question and respond to the 2 students below.

CH 11

3) How would you explain a company’s decision to use centralized decision-making processes and decentralized control processes, considering that the two are so interconnected? Provide an industry example of where this may occur.

4) How are U.S. multinationals trying to introduce total quality management into their operations? Give two examples. Would a U.S. MNC doing business in Germany find it easier to introduce TQM concepts into German operations, or would there be more receptivity to them back in the United States? Why? What if the U.S. multinational were introducing these ideas into a Japanese subsidiary?

CH12

2) Is Herzberg’s two-factor theory universally applicable to human resource management, or is its value limited to Anglo countries?

7) What do international managers need to know about the use of reward incentives to motivate personnel? What role does culture play in this process?

Respond to:

Megan Levine 

Chapter 11

2.  Which cultures would be more likely to focus on external controls?  Which cultures would consider direct controls to be more important than indirect controls?

–  Asian culture tends to focus the most on external controls, also south America/Latin culture.  There is a lot of effort placed into forming a tight nit bond/trust between parties.  More internal and indirect control would be used by our own culture- United States- where there is less on a formal personal basis, and more is done through technology and email.  

5.  In what ways could an accelerated decision-making process harm a company?  Using figure 11-1, which stage(s) do you think would be most in danger of being overlooked?

– An accelerated decision-making process could harm a company if the decision made was incorrect.  In an accelerated decision-making process, not much time is dedicated to looking at all alternatives.  If the decision that was made was not fully investigated and weighed against alternatives- it could be disastrous to the company in losing the profit they had anticipated also wasting resources and time.  The stages I would think would be in danger of being overlooked would be the search for alternatives and search for alternatives.

Chapter 12

  1. Do people throughout the world have needs similar to those described in Maslow’s need hierarchy?  What does your answer reveal about using universal assumptions regarding motivation? 
  • Maslow theory consists of 5 basic types of needs:  Psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.  All humans tend to satisfy or strive to satisfy all these basic needs.  Psychological needs are basic air, food, shelter.  Safety needs is law and order, security.  Social needs are love and family, wanted and appreciated.  Esteem needs is status, independence, power.  Self-actualization is the drive to reach one’s own potential.  These needs are important to human beings so it would universally be accurate. 
  1. Is Herzberg’s two-factor theory universally applicable to human resource management, or is its value limited to Anglo countries? 
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory is that two sets of factors influence job satisfaction: motivators and hygiene factors.  Motivators are acknowledgements- achievements, recognition, advancement, etc.  While hygiene factors are related to salary, working conditions, company policies, etc.  Research shows that Herzberg’s two-factor theory is pretty much universally applicable.  So no, it’s’ value is not limited to Anglo countries.

Kylie McDonald 

Chapter 11
2. Which cultures would be more likely to focus on external controls? Which cultures would consider direct controls to be more important than indirect controls?
Usually, we see Asian cultures focusing on external controls. In cultures that prioritize face-to-face communications direct controls would be more important than indirect controls. 
5. In what ways could an accelerated decision-making process harm a company? Using Figure 11–1, which stage(s) do you think would be most in danger of being overlooked?
The accelerated decision-making process can harm an organization because they often lead to hasty decisions, resulting in something being overlooked.

Chapter 12 
1. Do people throughout the world have needs similar to those described in Maslow’s need hierarchy? What does your answer reveal about using universal assumptions regarding motivation?
People throughout the world typically have the needs described in Maslow’s hierarchy. This suggests that universally people are motivated by similar things. 
2. Is Herzberg’s two-factor theory universally applicable to human resource management, or is its value limited to Anglo countries?
I believe that Herzberg’s two-factor theory could be universally applicable to human resource management. However, I cannot say this with the same confidence as the answer to the previous question, given Maslow’s hierarchy has been researched in various aspects of the world.