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Bipolar TherDescent/Ancestry

Asian girl

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

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The client is a 26-year-old woman of Korean descent who presents to her first appointment following a 21-day hospitalization for onset of acute mania. She was diagnosed with bipolar I disorder.

Upon arrival in your office, she is quite “busy,” playing with things on your desk and shifting from side to side in her chair. She informs you that “they said I was bipolar, I don’t believe that, do you? I just like to talk, and dance, and sing. Did I tell you that I liked to cook?”

She weights 110 lbs. and is 5’ 5”

SUBJECTIVE

Patient reports “fantastic” mood. Reports that she sleeps about 5 hours/night to which she adds “I hate sleep, it’s no fun.”

You reviewed her hospital records and find that she has been medically worked up by a physician who reported her to be in overall good health. Lab studies were all within normal limits. You find that the patient had genetic testing in the hospital (specifically GeneSight testing) as none of the medications that they were treating her with seemed to work.

Genetic testing reveals that she is positive for CYP2D6*10 allele.

Patient confesses that she stopped taking her lithium (which was prescribed in the hospital) since she was discharged two weeks ago.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

The patient is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed quite oddly- wearing what appears to be an evening gown to her appointment. Speech is rapid, pressured, tangential. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect broad. Patient denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no overt delusional or paranoid thought processes readily apparent. Judgment is grossly intact, but insight is clearly impaired. She is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation.

The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score is 22

RESOURCES

§ Chen, R., Wang, H., Shi, J., Shen, K., & Hu, P. (2015). Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(7), 835-841. doi:10.1007/s00228-015-1855-6

Decision Point One

Select what the PMHNP should do:

Begin Lithium 300 mg orally BIDBegin Risperdal 1 mg orally BIDBegin Seroquel XR 100 mg orally at HS

Decision Point One

Begin Lithium 300 mg orally BID

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client informs the PMHNP that she has been taking her drug “off and on” only when she “feels like she needs it”
  • Today’s presentation is similar to the first day you met her

Decision Point Two

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

Increase Lithium to 450 mg orally BID

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client returns reports that she is still taking the medication when she feels that she needs it
  • She remains quite manic and reports that her family is getting really upset because she likes to play her new guitar at night

Decision Point Three

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

Assess for rationale for non-compliance and educate client

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should further assess for dangerousness to self or others. The client should be assessed for self-care, to including hygiene, eating, sleeping, etc. Hospitalization may be indicated if the client remains non-compliant and is a danger to self. If the client is not a danger to self, and hospitalization is not indicated, the PMHNP needs to assess for rationale for non-compliance. Many clients enjoy mania as it is a nice feeling to be consistently happy. When clients are successfully treated for mania, they often describe themselves as feeling ‘down’ or ‘flat.’ The PMHNP needs to assess for depression at this point as opposed to normalization of mood. Abilify is also FDA approved as monotherapy for mania and mixed presentations, but at a dose of 15 mg. day., so although you may be tempted to begin Abilify- be certain to use correct dose. Also, because it can be “activating” you need to dose this drug in the morning. However, the client is non-compliant and therefore, eliciting reasons for non-compliance is essential to the care of this client.
Start Over

Consider hospitalization

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should further assess for dangerousness to self or others. The client should be assessed for self-care, to including hygiene, eating, sleeping, etc. Hospitalization may be indicated if the client remains non-compliant and is a danger to self. If the client is not a danger to self, and hospitalization is not indicated, the PMHNP needs to assess for rationale for non-compliance. Many clients enjoy mania as it is a nice feeling to be consistently happy. When clients are successfully treated for mania, they often describe themselves as feeling ‘down’ or ‘flat.’ The PMHNP needs to assess for depression at this point as opposed to normalization of mood. Abilify is also FDA approved as monotherapy for mania and mixed presentations, but at a dose of 15 mg. day., so although you may be tempted to begin Abilify- be certain to use correct dose. Also, because it can be “activating” you need to dose this drug in the morning. However, the client is non-compliant and therefore, eliciting reasons for non-compliance is essential to the care of this client.
Start Over

Change to abilify 10 mg orally at HS

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should further assess for dangerousness to self or others. The client should be assessed for self-care, to including hygiene, eating, sleeping, etc. Hospitalization may be indicated if the client remains non-compliant and is a danger to self. If the client is not a danger to self, and hospitalization is not indicated, the PMHNP needs to assess for rationale for non-compliance. Many clients enjoy mania as it is a nice feeling to be consistently happy. When clients are successfully treated for mania, they often describe themselves as feeling ‘down’ or ‘flat.’ The PMHNP needs to assess for depression at this point as opposed to normalization of mood. Abilify is also FDA approved as monotherapy for mania and mixed presentations, but at a dose of 15 mg. day., so although you may be tempted to begin Abilify- be certain to use correct dose. Also, because it can be “activating” you need to dose this drug in the morning. However, the client is non-compliant and therefore, eliciting reasons for non-compliance is essential to the care of this client.
Start Over

Assess rationale for non-compliance to elicit reason for non-compliance and educate client re: drug effects, and pharmacology

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client states that the drug makes her nauseated and gives her diarrhea
  • Client states that she stops taking it until these symptoms abate, at which point she re-starts only to experience the symptoms again

Decision Point Three

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

Change to Depakote ER 500 mg at HS

Guidance to Student
In this case, the client is having nausea and diarrhea, classic side effects of lithium therapy. Changing the client to an extended release formulation can often prevent these symptoms while at the same time affording the client the benefit of lithium’s mood stabilizing properties. Also, lithium is a good choice for control of mania and has also been shown to decrease risk of suicide, which adds to its overall benefits. Depakote may be an option if changing to sustained release lithium does not alleviate the side effects. Oxcarbazpine (Trileptal) is an option, but is a second line therapy and is not appropriate at this stage as the client has not had an adequate trial of first line agents.
Start Over

Change Lithium to sustained release preparation at same dose and frequency

Guidance to Student
In this case, the client is having nausea and diarrhea, classic side effects of lithium therapy. Changing the client to an extended release formulation can often prevent these symptoms while at the same time affording the client the benefit of lithium’s mood stabilizing properties. Also, lithium is a good choice for control of mania and has also been shown to decrease risk of suicide, which adds to its overall benefits. Depakote may be an option if changing to sustained release lithium does not alleviate the side effects. Oxcarbazpine (Trileptal) is an option, but is a second line therapy and is not appropriate at this stage as the client has not had an adequate trial of first line agents.
Start Over

Change to trileptal 300 mg orally BID

Guidance to Student
In this case, the client is having nausea and diarrhea, classic side effects of lithium therapy. Changing the client to an extended release formulation can often prevent these symptoms while at the same time affording the client the benefit of lithium’s mood stabilizing properties. Also, lithium is a good choice for control of mania and has also been shown to decrease risk of suicide, which adds to its overall benefits. Depakote may be an option if changing to sustained release lithium does not alleviate the side effects. Oxcarbazpine (Trileptal) is an option, but is a second line therapy and is not appropriate at this stage as the client has not had an adequate trial of first line agents.
Start Over

Switch to Depakote ER 500 mg orally at HS

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client reports that she has been compliant and you notice a marked reduction in manic symptoms. Young Mania Rating Scale was 11 (50% reduction from first office visit)
  • Client reports that she has gained 6 pounds over the last 4 weeks and wants to stop the medication because of this

Decision Point Three

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

Educate client regarding diet/weight loss and continue client on the same drug/dose

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should begin by educating the client regarding weight loss/and importance of diet/exercise while taking Depakote which can cause weight gain. Decreasing the dose of Depakote would not be appropriate as she still has symptoms and decreasing dose of Depakote may result in some weight loss, it may result in a return of manic symptoms. The PMHNP can switch to Zyprexa but if weight gain is the issue, then this will be compounded by Zyprexa which is associated with significant weight gain (up to 20 kg over a 24 month period).
Start Over

Decrease Depakote ER to 250 mg orally at HS

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should begin by educating the client regarding weight loss/and importance of diet/exercise while taking Depakote which can cause weight gain. Decreasing the dose of Depakote would not be appropriate as she still has symptoms and decreasing dose of Depakote may result in some weight loss, it may result in a return of manic symptoms. The PMHNP can switch to Zyprexa but if weight gain is the issue, then this will be compounded by Zyprexa which is associated with significant weight gain (up to 20 kg over a 24 month period).
Start Over

Switch medication to Zyprexa 15 mg orally daily at HS

Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should begin by educating the client regarding weight loss/and importance of diet/exercise while taking Depakote which can cause weight gain. Decreasing the dose of Depakote would not be appropriate as she still has symptoms and decreasing dose of Depakote may result in some weight loss, it may result in a return of manic symptoms. The PMHNP can switch to Zyprexa but if weight gain is the issue, then this will be compounded by Zyprexa which is associated with significant weight gain (up to 20 kg over a 24 month period).
Start Over

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

  • Decision #1
    • Which decision did you select?
    • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
  • Decision #2
    • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
  • Decision #3
    • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
    • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.