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There are many ways to misrepresent data through visualizations of data. There are a variety of websites that exist solely to put these types of graphics on display, to discredit otherwise somewhat credible sources. Leo (2019), an employee of The Economist, wrote an article about the mistakes found within the magazine she works for. Misrepresentations were the topic of Sosulski (2016) in her blog. This is discussed in the course textbook, as well (Kirk, 2016, p. 305).

After reading through these references use the data attached to this forum to create two visualizations in R depicting the same information. In one, create a subtle misrepresentation of the data. In the other remove the misrepresentation. Add static images of the two visualizations to your post. Provide your interpretations of each visualization along with the programming code you used to create the plots. Do not attach anything to the forum: insert images as shown and enter the programming code in your post.

When adding images to the discussion board, select the plus sign in the toolbar, then choose the image from your files.


This is the data to use for this post: Country_Data.csv

Before plotting, you must subset, group, or summarize this data into a much smaller set of points. Include your programming code for all programming work. It would be more likely that one would win a multi-million dollar lottery than plot the same information the same exact way. However, if you have, you will need to repost and make your post unique. The first post to provide the content does not need to change.


Kirk, A. (2016). Data visualisation: A handbook for data driven design. Sage.

Leo, S. (2019, May 27). Mistakes, we’ve drawn a few: Learning from our errors in data visualization. The Economist.

Sosulski, K. (2016, January). Top 5 visualization errors [Blog].

Considerations for every forum:

Remember your initial post on the main topic must be posted by Wednesday 11:59 PM (EST). Your 2 following posts, discussing and interacting with peers’ posts must be completed by Sunday at 11:59 PM (EST). 

Your initial post should include your references, thoroughly present your ideas, and provide evidence to support those ideas.  A quality peer response post is more than stating, “I agree with you.” State why you agree with your classmate’s post. Use the purpose of the forum is to generate discussion. 

No credit will be earned for posts that are disrespectful or not on the topic of the forum.

An example post:

The factual and misrepresented plots in this post are under the context that the visualizations represent the strength of the economy in five Asian countries: Japan, Israel, and Singapore, South Korea, and Oman. The gross domestic product is the amount of product throughput. GDP per capita is the manner in which the health of the economy can be represented.

The visual is provided to access the following research question:

How does the health of the economy between five Asian countries: Japan, Israel, and Singapore, South Korea, and Oman, compare from 1952 to 2011?


The plot titled with “GDP per Capita” is the true representation of economic health over the years of the presented countries. Japan consistently has seen the best economic health of the depicted countries. Singapore and South Korea both have large increases over the years, accelerating faster than the other countries in economic health. Oman saw significant growth in the years between 1960 and 1970, but the growth tapered off. All of the countries saw an increase in health over the provided time frame, per this dataset. Israel saw growth, but not as much as the other countries.

The plot titled without “per capita” is only GDP and does not actually represent economic health. Without acknowledging the number of persons the GDP represents, Japan is still the leading country over the time frame and within the scope of this dataset. Singapore’s metrics depict some of the larger issues of representing the GDP without considering the population. Instead of Singapore’s metrics depicting significant growth and having a level of health competitive with Japan in the true representation, Singapore has the fourth-smallest GDP. It indicates that Singapore’s economy is one of the least healthy amongst the five countries.

The programming used in R to subset, create, and save the plots:

# make two plots of the same information - one misrepresenting the data and one that does not
# use Country_Data.csv data
# plots based on the assumption the information is provided to represent the health of the countries' economy compared to other countries
# August 2020
# Dr. McClure


—————– Coding removed due to issues with students reposting the example post in prior courses —————–
You are required to post your code on the discussion, despite the removal in this example.

Your peers and I should be able to copy and paste your code into RStudio to render your graphics.


# save each plot with a transparent background in the archive image folder 
ggsave(filename = "PerCapita.png",
      plot = p1,
      bg = "transparent",
      path = "./code archive/_images")
ggsave(filename = "GDP.png", 
      plot = p2,
      bg = "transparent",